INTRODUCTION TO PHOTONICS
PHOTONICS term related to flow of photons using electronics device i.e, control the flow of light or properties using basic parameters(Refractive index, speed of light, etc.) of light.It is branch of science concerned with the properties and transmission of photons, for example in optical fiber as a wave guide.
We know that the speed of light is faster than electrical signal so the transmission rate is faster, that is the advantage of photonics system over a electrical or electronics system.
Photonic Instruments are components for creating, manipulating or detecting light. This can include laser diodes, light-emitting diode(LED)es, solar and photo-voltaic cells, displays and optical amplifiers, photonics integerated device, fiber optics sensor(FOS).
The bandwidth of photonics are wider,which applicable in various field like defence application in RADAR, SONAR, LiDAR etc, Space application in Avionics, In Nuclear technology and Medical Electronics etc.
Photonics Application in Medical science : The role of photonics in biomedical area is much wider and innovative. the main application of photonis in medical science are Medical Diagnostic and therapy,Endoscope, Spectrophotometry,pressure and position sensing or scintillation counting etc.
Fiber optics is a waveguide by which light travels. It is a good sensing element ,using fiber optics developed a Fiber optics sensors(FOS). fiber optics worked on the principle of Total internal reflection(TIR)
An optical fiber is a cylindrical dielectric waveguide (nonconducting waveguide) that transmits light from core medium, by the process of total internal reflection. The fiberconsists of a core surrounded by a cladding layer, both of which are made of dielectric materials.
FOS work based on the principle that light from a laser or any superluminescent source is transmitted via an optical fiber, experiences changes in its parameters either in the optical fiber or fiber Bragg gratings and reaches a detector which measures these changes.It measures the physical quantity of light and then translates it into a form that is readable by an instrument(electrical signal).
An optical sensor is generally part of a larger system that integrates a source of light, a measuring device and the optical sensor.The trigger reacts to a change in the signal within the light sensor.It is also used in Biotelemetry system.
Fiber Optic Probes for Cardiology Surgery, Sidebar image like Fiber optic based devices are used in many minimally invasive cardiology surgery applications. For example, mitral valve repair is an open heart procedure performed by cardiothoracicsurgeons to treat stenosis and regurgitation of the mitral valve.
LASERs are used in application for eye surgery, Medicine. Optical fibres can carry large amounts of information for use in telecommunications, and they allow detailed images from endoscopes.
Endoscopic surgery uses scopes going through small incisions or natural body openings in order to diagnose and treat disease. One of the two main endoscope cables carries light from a bright lamp in the operating room into the body, illuminating the cavity where the endoscope has been inserted. The light bounces along the walls of the cable into the patient’s body cavity.