Possibilities of Multiverse – Types & Paradox

(Last Updated On: August 6, 2019)

Introduction

In our daily lives, we encounter many phenomena that are not yet fully explained or we do not know how and why they occur. Mostly the uncommon experiences we have, we regard them as simple coincidence and ignore to understand as to why that event actually occurred. Out of such a phenomenon is one which is experienced by everyone at least once in his/her lifetime – Dreams. Dreams are a part of our life which we don’t comprehend easily.

No explanation has explained why do we dream and what’s the purpose of dreams. All current theories only link the mind to the dreams but it can also be linked to the multiverse theory. In fact, the multiverse approach helps us to fully understand as to why we dream, what’s their purpose and what do they exactly mean.

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Another such phenomenon not fully understood yet is the Mandela Effect also known as the false memory. Mandela Effect is when we remember an event to have occurred in a particular way but in reality, it hasn’t occurred the way we know. Multiverse approach will help us to study this effect and explain it to some extent. Multiverse approach will help us explain the existence of such events by the proposition that there are infinite possibilities and all occur simultaneously in their separate timelines and universe. Many existing theories that aim to prove the existence of multiverse will be discussed and would be further elaborated by our research work. Attempts will be made to explain some unsolved paradoxes like “Grandfather Paradox” by using the multiverse approach.

Read Also – The Beginning of The Physics

Current Existing Work

The universe as we know it stretches to infinity without any observable boundary except the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The sheer size of the universe makes it a place where almost everything can occur. This puzzling idea of an infinite universe is the birth ground of the multiverse theory. The current physical explanation of the origin of our universe is from The Big bang Theory. The big bang was responsible for the formation of our known universe. The big-bang model itself is complete but does not account for each and every phenomenon we observe. Thus other theories have been put forward to explain and account for these phenomena.

Theories that are currently proposed

1. Quilted Universe – The universe is infinite and thus in such a large region of space each and every event is bound to occur infinite times. What this theory proposes is that we live and observe only a part of this infinite universe due to the limit of light and beyond which lies all the possibilities and events that can occur.

2. Membrane Multiverse – This theory proposes that we can think of the universe as membranes stacked upon each other to form a bigger multiverse. All membranes can interact with their neighboring membrane universes and thus cause a big bang if two membrane universes collide violently. This violent destruction of universes can give birth to a new universe.

3. Quantum Universe Hypothesis – Quantum universe hypothesis explains the existence of multiverse due to infinite possible events. What this means is that whenever an event occurs all of its other possible ways in which it can occur, happen simultaneously by forming a new universe for each possible event. This comes from the fact of superposition of quantum states i.e. all possibilities exist simultaneously.

4. Ultimate Multiverse Hypothesis – This theory suggests that every possible variation of universes exist and they have all possible variations of the laws of physics as we know them. The hypothesis account for every possible event and every possible way laws of physics can be formulated.

Another existing theory that may prove the existence of a multiverse is the simulation theory. According to this theory we are living in a simulation rather than a real physical world. All the events and laws are simulated by a machine capable of doing such calculations.

This idea stems from the trend of increasing computing power. We are now capable to simulate extremely complex events on computers even an entire universe someday. The simulation theory explains why are the physical constants the way they are, why are the laws of physics the way they are and also why there is a limit after which we cannot understand anything about the universe which has been discovered by us through quantum mechanics.

Our universe may just be a coded environment through which we interact in a pre-programmed way. The code will always be abstracted from us and prevent us from learning the fundamental process which makes our universe tick.

Possible future work

A) Simulation theory

Simulation Theory suggests that we may live in a simulated reality and everything we observe or interact with is just a part of a giant simulation. The simulation theory suggests the existence of multiverse due to the possibility of each and every outcome of an event. We are constantly able to see that the computing power available to us is increasing by an exponential amount. As this much computing power is at our disposal we can very well use it to create complex simulations in which there are an environment and observers which can interact with each other.

The environment and the mind of the observer can be made as detailed as possible so as to make the simulation reality as viewed from the observer’s frame. This argument can be extended and applied to our reality by assuming that some ancient civilizations may have achieved a great level of computing power and thus would have simulated our reality and us.

The existence of a simulated reality cannot be proved but only hypothesized by observing the facts which are not explainable by classical theories. The phenomenon observed at the quantum scale and the inherent randomness associated with the quantum results hint to our reality being a part of a great simulation. A simulated reality can accommodate the possibility of infinite multiverses very easily as each outcome of the events associated with the real need to be simulated will most likely have many universes having al outcomes of an event simultaneously.

We propose that as we may be living in a simulated reality, the meaning of reality is no longer defined. The reality we see is only an illusion created by the simulation.

B) Quantum Phenomenon

Results of quantum experiments are ever so puzzling and always counter-intuitive. Quantum Mechanics predicts that down to the fundamental level nothing can be predicted beforehand, and all the results are just a cloud of probabilities.

We are made to believe that we live in a highly deterministic universe where everything can be pre-determined provided we know all the variables associated. But quantum mechanics proves otherwise as the particles we are made of do not follow determinism.

The position of an electron cannot be determined in an atom accurately, all we can do is predict the probability of finding an electron in a particular region. This probability of finding the electron is given by the wave function. Electrons are random thus we cannot pre-determine their position or momentum (Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle) – Δx.Δp≥ℏ

Thomas Young’s famous double-slit experiment also proposes that the exact path a photon will take to reach the screen through the slits cannot be pre-determined and observing one thing about it creates uncertainty in other observations. For E.g. If we shoot a photon from a source through the double slit, we have no way of Knowing which slit will the photon choose and so we obtain a wave pattern on the screen. Now if we put a detector just ahead of the two slits and observer through which slit the photon came out, the wave pattern on the screen vanishes. Thus, the act of observing only changes the behavior of the photon.

As we can see from the above arguments, each event cannot be determined and is inherently random thus we can say that all the possible outcomes of an event happen randomly, and all happen simultaneously. The outcomes of the event are in a quantum superposition.

The concept of superposition is very crucial in determining the existence of a multiverse. It can be understood by a thought experiment by Erwin Schrödinger known as the Schrödinger’s cat. Take a hypothetical box containing a cat and a radioactive element connected by an apparatus which will release poison if the radioactive element decays.

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The probability of the element decaying is 50% thus making the probability of releasing the poison as also 50% and hence we can imply the cat has a 50% chance of being alive and 50% chance of being dead. We cannot determine without opening the box that if the cat is alive or dead and thus we conclude that at the instance when the box is closed, the cat is in a quantum superposition of two states of being alive and dead at the same time.

This is just a hypothetical experiment to understand the meaning of the superposition of states. The superposition of events is what gives rise to the multiverse theory. As we can see from the above argument, all possible outcomes of an event are present at the same instant and happen at the same time thus if in one universe a favorable outcome occurs then in another universe the other outcomes will also occur for that event. Thus we can conclude by the quantum argument that due to the possibility of infinite events, infinite universes should also occur so as to satisfy each and every outcome of the events.

C) Butterfly Effect

The butterfly effect is the sensitive dependence on initial conditions in which a small change can have a very large effect on the later stages. We can apply the concept of butterfly effect on our daily lives and also use it to prove the existence of multiverses.

Put simply butterfly effect states that even a small change in a condition can start a chain reaction of events which will lead to the change in the final state of things. Even a small action can change how the events, later on, will develop. Due to the butterfly effect, we can see the existence and creation of various timelines whenever initial conditions are changed. The changed condition will develop another timeline with a completely different outcome than if that change was never done.

So the existence of different timelines due to the existence of various outcomes of every event can only be accommodated by a multiverse model. If we experience one outcome of an event in our universe then the other outcomes are also bound to occur but in different timelines or we can say in different universes. So we can conclude that to fully accommodate the implications of the butterfly effect a multiverse model should be put forward as in a single universe all outcomes of an event cannot occur at the same time.

We conclude that each and every observer is the ultimate reality and reality itself is an illusion created by the mind of the observer.

Read Also: Time Travel – A Journey Through Time

Kiran

Kiran

He is studying in class 12th (Maharashtra). He published his 3 papers on Theory of Relativity & interested in Applied Mathematics, General Relativity & Theoretical Cosmology.

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