WALK WITH QUESTIONS IN SCIENCE
“Questioning” is extremely basic activity that human tend to have in almost all the troubles and situations especially during doubts. We have questioned in almost every place of human’s approaches. Since the beginning (or NO BEGINING) we have questioned about everything, from questions about Hunger, shelter, protection or satisfaction to the questions about existence, universe, reality, spirituality and obviously Physics. These are questions which has led us to present point of advancement of us. So I strongly believe “questioning” is basic instinct of living being. So here I would be trying to do the same for our special subject “Physics” (or for just science to be general), so let’s “Walk with Questions”.
(1) Optical Mechanics:
Before going directly to the topic that I put in first place I would like to go briefly for few simple activities.
- Why do water from high gravitational potential to low gravitational potential?
Simple: Because system always tends to go stable (naturally), so when water reaches to zero gravitational potential (earth’s surface) stability of system increases and becomes highest and hence water flow always from high to low gravitational potential.
Again in answering above simple question led me to ask one more question “why do system tends to become stable?”
In answering it I would take help from common sense instead of sources and for that we will take one thought experiment involving gravitational system in classical sense.
The system has only two objects with definite mass (M1 and M2).
The system is within ideal space environment.
What would happen in here?
Simply Newtonian gravitational force would act on both the objects and will try to get them close to each other and finally will end up making both the objects in contact with each other. Now after coming in contact with each other, if their toughness is lesser than gravitational force (or if intermolecular force is lesser than the force of gravity at the instant of clash or contact) both objects will be crushed or broken down into pieces otherwise simply stay in contact and at this situation energy of both the objects of system goes to lowest possible value ( E= m * g * h ; in this case) and we call this situation STABLE. Nothing new, right?
So stability is just a term of situation simply defined by us to theorize the concept of answer of above question and other similar questions.
Back to main question’s response: This is how we simply answers that “why water go from high gravitational potential to low potential”.
- Why do electrical charges go from high to low electric potential?
Response: Same as above explanation with different physical quantities.
So from now on our main question about “optical mechanism” starts:
“Is there any such mechanism in optical system which responses to the gradient of two different potentials?”
Simply, is there any possibility of having some kind of optical potential difference between two points in space which is responsible for the flow of light!
Further simple words for question:
Why/how do light flow from one point to another point?
Note that in questioning, I am not denying the explanation given by quantum mechanics.
Electronic transitions between different energy states are responsible for the emission and absorption of light. It is highly sensible explanation for light’s emission and absorption. Our question is related to directional feature of light, that why does it flow from one particular point to another point in space. We have source of light but why that particular way to flow, and more interestingly you can question it for both the natures of light (Photons as well as for waves).
It would be good approach if we can somehow discover and establish a similar mechanism for optical field, it wouldn’t be necessary to discover inverse square low as in case of Newton and Coulomb’s lows but though if somehow we critically find that good way of deciding in which way the light would flow after emitted from atom.
At the end of discovery in future; I would proudly say “hey man, it’s a way of light get off the way”, instead of saying “light always flows from SOURCE to DARKNESS”.
(2) Questions on relativity:
For this part of our WALK, readers are expected to get some basic information and concepts about relativity, gravitation, acceleration and different frames of references, and about obviously Einstein’s and Newton’s explanations. This topic is huge and confusing many times and also time taking, for really some obvious reasons, some of you might be aware of those really obvious reasons. So without making more NON-SENSE, Let’s go directly to the SENSIBLE NON-SENSES.
Start questioning with “Absoluteness”.
Simply, absoluteness is uniformity in measurement (at least for our subject). Let’s simplify this with below explanation.
Take any object RED in colour; give it to different observers, one standing still on ground, another standing on top of mountain, and one seating in spaceship travelling with certain velocity. If everyone notices same RED colour for that same object; we can say that its colour is absolute. We can define absoluteness for different physical quantities such as speed, force, location (or length or distance), time etc.
Now let us take speed of Light for consideration since it is exceptional case for our normal sensible universe.
First point: speed of light is enormously high ( 3 * 10^8 m/s ), but not infinite. It is finite, meaning any object that you see is not instantly appeared in front of you, but it take some tiny amount of time to appear. Even light from the sun takes few seconds to reach to earth. It is not much interesting, very common information “something has very high speed”; but interest lies in our 2nd point below.
Second point: speed of light is absolute or same for all observers no matter in what condition the observer is. Meaning; huge change in world of especially in theoretical physics. This was the discovery that led us to the understanding of our functioning universe, and confused us too.
Sometimes it makes us think about it again and again, since it is not the phenomena that we daily deals with, and that’s the reason it’s really confusing.
Now our questions in the form of doubts and suspicions start from this very point.
“What makes light different from normal Newtonian or non Newtonian quantity or object?”
“What property of light makes its speed absolute?”
“Is absoluteness of speed true for all electromagnetic waves or just applicable for visible spectrum?”
“Is it verifiable?”
These questions are not that easy to discuss briefly, obviously they need huge efforts. I had discussions with one professor of physics from United States on social media’s platform, and our discussion was honestly terrible. I can’t put all of them in here but one can conclude that it still needs huge work.
We still don’t have an instrument to check its absoluteness, how can we verify it?
One more argument about postulates described by the Einstein’s famous paper of 1905 titled “electrodynamics of Moving bodies”.
Postulates ask us to accept two things:
(1) It is impossible to say who is moving and who is standing still
(2) Laws of physics are same for all observers (speed of light is absolute or no matter what frame of reference they are in speed of light is same for all the observers).
The meaning of Postulate is highly in reference with acceptance, rather than fact. (Meaning if you accept this than that is possible).
What is the shape of spacetime curvature?
Spacetime is like a infinitely huge network of threaded fabric expanded in all the directions (Cartesian coordinate system here) which include four dimensions as listed below.
- x-coordinate (space)
- y-coordinate (space)
- z-coordinate (space)
- t-coordinate (time)
Here time is not treated as absolute quantity which just flows from t=0 to present and future (may be up to infinite), but it is treated as coordinate which may be different for different observers similar to point which may have different coordinates for one observer and different coordinate for another. It is the one of those discoveries that differentiates the modern science from classical science and also picture of gravity is in same queue. It is impossible for us to picture the spacetime in mind since our brain has limitations. Limitation is not good word to use for it but I can’t find substitute for that. Since functions of our today’s brain are results of huge chain of processes of evolution that started at a point and went in random direction and now it is at the stage where it discovered the connection between space and time but it has no ability to make intuition and think of its visual picture in brain. So if anyone or any computer software tries to make it easy for you, make questions about it and make doubts about its reality or truthfulness.
At first we have no idea how to picture the spacetime, think how big the question is? We are trying to find shape of the curvature of it, any sense? You can find thousands of pictures curving the spacetime from Google but I can’t find them as beautiful as I think they should be.
Most of the pictures are just showing curvature around the massive celestial objects in and other smaller objects revolving around it (like moon around earth, satellites around earth, earth around sun etc.) but almost all of them are non sensibly two dimensioned, if that is so than we can get why Moon and some non polar artificial satellites orbits around earth, but what about polar satellites that go along the polar regions and whose orbits are exactly or around at 90’ with respect to equator.
This question also includes functioning of general theory of relativity which is to explain the gravitational waves due to huge disturbances caused by huge massive objects in spacetime and also to make the special theory of relativity applicable for all the inertial frames as well as accelerating frames of references.
With these few questions I would like to end up my walk with you, readers. I just wish everyone to use their basic instinct of questioning at every point and put the justification for their questions in every places of their life including comment section of this post made by me. If you find any problem or mistake please let me know in comment section below.