Chandrayaan 3 made history by successfully landing on the South Pole of the Moon. Indian spacecraft Vikram landed on the lunar surface on August 23, 2023, making it the fourth country to successfully land a spacecraft on the Moon. India also became the first country to do a soft landing on the moon’s south pole.
The mission carried a number of scientific instruments that studied the Moon’s surface, composition, and environment. With these instruments, a number of groundbreaking discoveries were made by Chandrayaan 3 for the first time in history.
The Chandrayaan 3 spacecraft discovered many elements on the moon, as well as massive temperature variations, a thin plasma environment, and mysterious sound activity. Moon’s south pole can be better understood with these discoveries.
The focus of this article will be on Chandrayaan 3 discoveries. We have explained important 4 discoveries in detail in this article. It also provides some context for each discovery, explaining why it is important and what it could mean for our understanding of the Moon. This article is a good resource for anyone who wants to learn more about the Chandrayaan 3 mission and its discoveries.
Let’s examine the recent discoveries made by Chadrayaan 3 on the moon in more detail –
1. Massive Temperature Variations on the Lunar Surface
An interesting discovery was made by Chandrayaan 3’s Pragyan rover when it measured the soil temperature of the moon. A massive temperature variation has been observed on the surface of the moon. The temperature ranges from minus 10 degrees Celsius to around 70 degrees Celsius.
In its observations of lunar topsoil, it was found that the surface temperature of the Moon is around 50 degrees Celsius. It was almost 70 degrees Celsius at 20 mm height above the ground. Temperatures dropped to minus 10 degrees Celsius at minus 80mm depth, which is below ground level.
To understand the moon’s thermal behavior, ChaSTE (Chandra’s Surface Thermophysical Experiment) measures the temperature profile of its topsoil around its poles. This instrument has a temperature probe with a controlled penetration mechanism capable of reaching a depth of 10 cm (1 cm = 10 mm). Ten temperature sensors are mounted on the probe.
Following is a graph showing the temperature variations at various depths on the lunar surface, as recorded by the probe –
“This is the first such profile for the lunar south pole. Detailed observations are underway.”ISRO said
Why is the Measurement of Massive Temperature Variation on the Lunar Surface Important?
There are several reasons why measuring massive temperature variations on the lunar surface is important:
- Using it, we can gain a deeper understanding of the Moon’s environment. Due to its thin atmosphere, the Moon cannot regulate its temperature as well as Earth’s. As a result, the Moon’s surface and inhabitants may experience extreme temperature variations.
- Our understanding of the Moon’s history can be enhanced by measuring its massive temperature variations. Moon’s surface is constantly changing, and temperature variations can play an important role. A better understanding of the Moon’s evolution can be gained by studying temperature variations.
- It can also help us understand other planetary bodies. Extreme temperature variations are not limited to the Moon. These variations are also experienced by other bodies, such as Mercury and Mars. It is possible to learn more about how these variations affect other planetary bodies by studying the Moon.
- Measuring massive temperature variations on the moon can help us develop future lunar exploration strategies. Astronauts who wish to explore the Moon need to be aware of the extreme temperature fluctuations and protect themselves accordingly. Taking measures to avoid cold exposure could include wearing special suits that protect them from the cold or planning their activities carefully.
In order to explore the moon in the future, the measurement of the massive temperature variation of the lunar surface is a valuable resource for scientists and engineers. The data will help them to develop safer and more efficient ways to explore the Moon.
2. Discovеry of Sulphur on the Moon – One of The Most Important Chandrayaan 3 Discoveries
Several elements have been detected by the Pragyan rover near the lunar south pole. Sulphur has been found near the south pole of the moon. It has also detected the presence of Aluminum, Calcium, Chromium, Iron, Titanium, Manganese, Silicon, and Oxygen (Al, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ti, Mg, Si & O).
LIBS, the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometer on the rover, made these discoveries. Using a powerful laser, this tool helps scientists understand what the Moon is made of. Using intense laser pulses, LIBS analyzes the composition of materials.
Why the discovery of sulphur is important?
The discovery of Sulphur (S) on the south pole of the Moon is very important because of –
- Since other tools that orbit the Moon couldn’t detect sulfur, the discovery of sulphur is very important.
- It is the first time that sulphur has been found on the Moon in such abundance, and the discovery could shed light on how the moon formed and evolved.
- Sulphur is more common in other parts of the solar system, including Jupiter’s moon Io but it is relatively rare on Earth.
- As a result of sulphur being discovered on the Moon, the Moon may have been more volcanically active in the past than previously thought.
- There is also a possibility that the sulphur on the moon is a sign of water ice. It is common in other parts of the solar system to find sulphur and water ice together.
- If water ice is found on the Moon, it could be used as a fuel and water source for future lunar exploration.
Sulphur being discovered on the Moon is a major discovery that brings us closer to understanding the Moon and its potential for further exploration. This is why Sulphur is one of the most important Chandrayaan 3 discoveries. ISRO scientists will continue to study the Moon in order to uncover even more secrets of the Moon.
3. Plasma Measurement on the Moon For The First Time
Chandrayaan 3 has measured the plasma environment above the Moon’s South Pole for the first time. This experiment measured electron density near the moon’s surface. The measurements are made by the RAMBHA-LP payload aboard the Vikram lander. According to this experiment, the number density ranges from approximately 5 million to 30 million electrons per cubic meter. This indicates that the plasma is relatively thin.
The plasma is thought to be created by the interaction of the solar wind with the Moon’s atmosphere. These electrons are liberated from the powerful rays from the sun hitting the lunar surface. The density of this electron increases during the day, while at night it is almost zero.
Why the Measurement of Plasma is Important?
Plasma measurements on the Moon can help us understand a number of things, like:
- Now, scientists will gain a greater understanding of the Moon’s atmosphere and its interaction with the solar wind, thanks to Chandrayaan 3 discoveries & measurements.
- Radio communication between the Moon and Earth could be interfered with by the plasma, so it is important to understand its properties in order to mitigate its effects.
- An overview of the origins and evolution of the atmosphere of the Moon can be obtained.
- Measuring the plasma on the Moon is also crucial to understanding the plasma environment around other solar system bodies, like Mars and Mercury. Observing the Moon’s plasma environment will give us a better understanding of how plasma behaves in different environments and how it affects these bodies.
- Using plasma to shield astronauts from radiation can help protect them from space harmful radiation.
- Moreover, the measurements may be useful for future lunar explorations.
So, taking measurements of plasma on the Moon is a challenging, but essential & part of research. Plasma measurements on the Moon can help us understand the Moon, the solar system, and the universe.
4. A Mysterious Natural Event Detected
A mysterious natural event has been recorded on the south pole of the moon by the Vikram lander. However, the detection of its source is yet to be identified.
An instrument on the Vikram lander, called ILSA (The Instrument for Lunar Seismic Activity), detected this event. The ILSA instrument detects vibrations on the lunar surface using a seismometer.
There was no damage to the Vikram lander during the brief event, which lasted only a few seconds. However, the event is still significant because a seismic event has never been recorded in this area of the Moon before.
There appears to have been a seismic event, although its exact nature is still unknown.
Several things could cause it, including a meteorite impact, a lunar quake, or another collapse.According to ISRO Scientists
During the coming days and weeks, they plan to investigate this event further and we will learn more about its nature.
It is still unclear how, or what, the event originated. Scientists are still trying to find the answers to questions like What was its exact nature, and source?
By answering these questions, scientists will be able to gain a better understanding of the Moon and its environment. We have made significant progress in our understanding of the Moon with the discovery of this mysterious natural event. It is a reminder that many mysteries still exist in our solar system.
As of now, Chandrayaan 3 has made several important discoveries about the Moon so far. Because Chandrayaan 3 is still ongoing, these discoveries are just a few of the many. The Moon is full of secrets, and scientists are eager to discover them.
The Chandrayaan 3 mission is a major milestone in India’s space program, and it could revolutionize how we understand the Moon. Discoveries by Chandrayaan 3 demonstrate the power of science to uncover new information and explore the universe.
A bright future lies ahead for lunar exploration, and the Chandrayaan 3 mission is paving the way.
We hope you find this article helpful. Let us know in the comment section. If you have any doubt on Chadrayaan 3 then please let us know in the comment section. We will answer every comment.
Chandrayaan 3 Latest News Today – Live Update:
2 September 2023
Chandrayaan 3 Update 1: Chandrayaan 3 Mission Latest Update: Pragyan Rover just made the century on the Moon by traveling within a boundary of over 100 meters 🏆
100🏏 (Not Out) ☺
And continuing …..
Chandrayaan 3 Update 2:
The Pragyan Rover is put into sleep mode.
A night has begun at the moon. It will last for 14 Earth days.
The weather will be extremely cold at night. For the next 14 days, Vikram and Pragyan cannot work because they can only work in the sun. Pragyan Rover’s battery is fully charged at the moment. The solar panel is oriented to receive light from the next sunrise. The next sunrise on the Moon will occur on September 22, 2023.
3 September 2023
No news yet! We will update the news as soon as possible when available!
According to estimates, Chandrayaan-3 cost Rs 615 crore or $75 million. Interstellar cost $165 million to produce, more than double the cost of the Chandrayaan 3 mission. This means, a movie about space costs more than a space mission itself.
As of now, only 4 countries have successfully landed a spacecraft on the Moon.
Both NASA and ISRO found water on the moon. Water and hydroxyl molecules were detected on the Moon by Chandrayaan 1’s M3 instrument in 2009. NASA launched the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in 2009. On the Moon’s poles, it detected water ice as well. We intend to learn more about water on the Moon with the Chandrayaan 2 orbiter. With its enhanced infrared spectrometer, it will map water concentrations in the lunar soil and identify water-bearing minerals.
Yes of course but the moon water is unsafe to drink. Because the water may contain toxic crystals, it may be from a natural body of water without being filtered or boiled, or it may have been left out uncovered for a long period of time.
Yes. On the moon, India has a flag. As part of the Chandrayaan-1 mission in 2008, an Indian flag was placed on the Moon for the first time. A small spacecraft called the Moon Impact Probe (MIP) was sent to impact the lunar surface with the flag attached. Flags would have been destroyed by the force of the impact of the MIP as it crashed into the Moon at a high speed.
However, as the Pragyan rover rolled across the lunar regolith (soil), the Indian flag and ISRO logo were imprinted there.
Russia in 1966 (The first country to land on the moon), United States in 1966, China in 2013, India in 2023
The Chandrayaan-3 mission of India was the first to find sulfur on the Moon. LiBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) was used by the Pragyan rover to detect sulfur in the lunar soil.
Yes, Chadrayaan 3 is made in India. However, NASA attached a component called LRA – Laser Retroreflector Array. It is not unusual for Chandrayaan-3 to use foreign components. Foreign components are used in many space missions, even by developed countries. ISRO developed and built the lander, the rover, and the orbiter.
Well, the answer is no. After their mission life is over, both Vikram and Pragyan will be decommissioned from the lunar surface. Solar energy is used to generate power, which is why they have a short mission life. Solar panels power the lander and the rover, and the mission lasts only 14 days.