January 1 in Physics History

Physics history will help you to develop a better understanding of the physics world!

birthdays & deaths

Explore all birthdays & deaths of physicists occurred on this day with their short biography!

physics Events

Know all important discoveries made by physicists & events happened on this day with complete information!

January 1 in Physics History - Births – Physicists born on January 1

Satyendra Nath Bose (1 Jan 1894 - 4 Feb 1974)

Indian physicist and mathematician who collaborated with Einstein to develop a theory of statistical quantum physics , now called Bose-Einstein statistics. In his early work in quantum theory (1924), Bose wrote about the Planck blackbody radiation law using a quantum statistics of photons, Plank’s Law and the Light Quantum Hypothesis. Bose sent his ideas to Einstein, who extended this technique to integral spin particles. Dirac coined the name boson for particles obeying these statistics. Among other things, Bose-Einstein statistics explain how an electric current can flow in superconductors forever, with no loss. Bose also worked on X-ray diffraction , electrical properties of the ionosphere and thermoluminescence.

Albert Hoyt Taylor (1 Jan 1879 - 11 Dec 1961)

American physicist and radio engineer, known as the “father of navy radar” whose work laid the foundation for U.S. radar development. In Sep 1922, with Leo C. Young, he proposed the detection of intruding ships by transmitting a curtain of high-frequency radio waves across harbour entrances, or between ships, with a receiver to detect disturbances caused by ships occupation the electromagnetic field. Taylor became superintendent of the Radio Division at the newly-established Naval lab (1923-45). In 1934, he directed Robert Page to experiment with pulsed high-frequency radio signals for aircraft detection. In 1937, the first 200-MHz shipboard radar was installed. He also investigated ionospheric effects.

January 1 in Physics History - Deaths – Physicists died on January 1

Heinrich Hertz (22 Feb 1857 - 1 Jan 1894)

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz was a German physicist who was the first to broadcast and receive radio waves. He studied under Kirchhoff and Helmholtz in Berlin, and became professor at Bonn in 1889. His main work was on electromagnetic waves (1887). Hertz generated electric waves by means of the oscillatory discharge of a condenser through a loop given a spark gap, then detecting them with an identical sort of circuit. Hertz’s condenser was a pair of metal rods, placed end to end with alittle gap for a spark between them. Hertz was also the first to discover the photoelectric effect. The unit of frequency – one cycle per second – is named after him. Hertz died of blood poisoning in 1894 at the age of 37.

Johann Bernoulli (6 Aug 1667 - 1 Jan 1748)

Swiss mathematician who is noted for his discovery of the exponential calculus (1691) and the equation of the catenary (1690). His first publication was on the process of fermentation (1690), but thereafter, he studied and taught mathematics for the rest of his life. He followed his his brother Jacques as professor of mathematics at Basle. He was the first to use g to represent the acceleration due to gravity. He applied the then new calculus to the measurement of curves, to differential equations, and to mechanical problems. He introduced the famous brachistochrome problem. “Archimedes of his age” was inscribed on his tombstone. The mathematician Jacob Bernoulli was his brother, and the mathematician daniel bernoulli was his son.

Eugene Paul Wigner (17 Nov 1902 - 1 Jan 1995)

Hungarian-American physicist who shared the 1963 Nobel prize for Physics (with Maria Goeppert Mayer and Johannes Hans Jensen) for his insight into quantum physics , for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the invention and application of fundamental symmetry principles. He made many contributions to nuclear physics and played a prominent role in the development of the atomic bomb and nuclear energy.

January 1 in Physics History - Events – Physics Events on January 1

International Ozone Agreement

In 1989, the Montreal Protocol, an international agreement (adopted 16 Sep 1987) to reduce the utilization of ozone-depleting substances, came into force. Ecological and health damage results from a depleted ozone layer as more UV-B radiation can reach the earth’s surface. Results include increased rates of skin cancers and eye cataracts, reduced plant and fishing yields and other adverse effects on terrestrial and ocean ecosystems, weakened immune systems, and more damage to plastics. The international treaty intends to guard the ozone layer by phasing out the production of halogenated hydrocarbon substances believed to be liable for ozone depletion. it has proved to be a very successful international agreement.

First Radio broadcast

In 1902, the first radio broadcast demonstration in the U.S. was given by Nathan B. Stubblefield. His voice was the first to be carried on the air-waves (“wireless” – without any wires used for the transmission). At Fairmont Park, Philadelphia, he gave a public exhibition during which he transmitted his voice to a receiver a mile distant from the transmitter. He kept the details of the invention secret until he was issued a patent (U.S. No. 887,357) and gave another demonstration on 30 May 1902. He was unable to get a suitable buyer for his invention, thus no distribution, and received little notice for being the first to have accomplished a voice radio broadcast.

Size of the Universe

In 1925, a paper by Hubble described how he had measured that the Andromeda galaxy was at a far greater distance than, and thus not a part of , our Milky Way galaxy. That significantly extended the known view of the universe. His paper was read, by H.N. Russell, to a meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Washington, D.C. Hubble had observed Cepheid variable stars within the Milky and Andromeda galaxies. He applied Henrietta Leavitt’s discovery that for such stars, pulsation rate and absolute brightness were related in a predictable way. If two such stars have an equivalent pulsation rate, they have an equivalent absolute brightness. If one appears less bright, it’s further away. Comparing apparent brightness with absolute brightness (known from the pulsation rate) gives distance measurement.

Discoveries of X-rays

In 1896, German scientist, Wilhelm Röntgen announced his discovery of X-rays. He sent copies of his manuscript and a few of his X-ray photographs to several renowned physicists and friends, including Lord Kelvin in Glasgow and Henri Poincaré in Paris. Four days later, on 5 Jan 1896, Die Presse published the news in a front-page article which described the invention and suggested new methods of medical diagnoses might be made with this new kind of radiation. one day later, the London Standard cabled the news to other countries around the world about the “a light which for the aim of photography will penetrate wood, flesh, cloth, and most other organic substances.” It printed the first English-language account the next day.

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