July 1 in Physics History - Births – Physicists born on July 1
Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (1 Jul 1742 - 24 Feb 1799)
He was a German Physicist and a satirical writer, who researched a wide variety of fields such as, metrology, chemistry, mathematics, and astronomy. He constructed use electrophorus and discovered the basic principle of modern xerographic copying in 1777. He reproduced images that are still called “Lichtenberg figures”. He is also known for his aphorisms and his ridicule of romantic and metaphysical excesses.
Iosif Samuilovich Shklovskii (1 Jul 1916 - 3 Mar 1985)
He was a Soviet astrophysicist who linked x-ray stars to binary systems containing neutron stars. He identified the continuum radiation of the Crab Nebula as synchrotron radiation. He showed that the corona of the sun had a temperature of the order of a million Kelvin. He suggested that the cause of mass extinction might have resulted from the cosmic rays ejected from past supernovae. He wrote many books including Intelligent Life in the Universe. He was awarded the Bruce Medal in 1972.
July 1 in Physics History - Deaths – Physicists died on July 1
Lawrence Bragg (31 Mar 1890 - 1 Jul 1971)
He was an Australian-English physicist and X-ray crystallographer who shared the Noble Prize in 1915 with his father. He formulated the fundamentals for the determination of crystal structure, also known as Bragg law. It relates the wavelengths of X-rays, the angle of incidence on a crystal, and the spacing of crystal planes for X-ray diffraction. The Braggs showed that sodium chloride does not have individual molecules in the solid and worked out the crystal structures of many substances.
Baron C.P. Snow (15 Oct 1905 - 1 Jul 1980)
He was an English physicist and government administrator. He claimed that there were two cultures- the literary intellectuals and the scientists- who didn’t understand and trust each other. He made this statement in his controversial 1959 Rede Lecture called The Two Cultures and The Scientific Revolution. He noted that literary theorists had begun to use the word “intellectual” to refer only to themselves. He asked a group of literary intellectuals to tell him about the second law of Thermodynamics, which he called the scientific equivalent of “Have you read a work of Shakespeare?”. After that, this debate has continued.
July 1 in Physics History - Events – Physics Events of July 1
The First X-Ray Photograph of Human Body
The first x-ray photograph of a human body was taken in a one-second exposure in 1934. This was done by using ordinary clinical conditions. A selective filter was used for the first time and exhibited by the Chicago Roentgen Society at the Century of Progress Exhibition.