June 8 in Physics History - Births – Physicists born on June 8
Bernd T. Matthias (8 Jun 1918 - 27 Oct 1980)
He was a German-American physicist who discovered nearly 1000 superconducting materials. He completed his Ph.D. in 1943 in Germany and went to the US to work at MIT. The low-temperature physics was started by him at the University of Chicago. He founded the institute University of Chicago, for the study of matter. He showed the properties of superconductivity, ferroelectricity, and ferromagnetism to be common occurrences in nature. He was able to find new examples of materials because of the relationships he could see in the periodic table.
Kenneth Geddes Wilson (8 June 1936 - 15 June 2013)
He was an American physicist who developed a general procedure to improve the theories concerning the transformations of matter called second-order phase transitions. For his discovery, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1982. The second-order phase transition takes place at characteristic temperatures and pressures throughout the entire volume of a material. An example of such a transition is the complete loss of ferromagnetic properties of certain metals when they are heated to their Curie points. His theory helped in constructing theories that could apply to physical systems near the critical point.
Arsène d'Arsonval (8 Jun 1851 - 31 Dec 1940)
He was a French physician and physicist who was the first to research the therapeutic use of electricity, heat, and light. The first reflecting moving coil galvanometer was designed by him in 1882. He also researched muscle contraction, animal heat, and electrophysiology. This helped him in the invention of devices that are used to treat diseases with electricity. He used high-frequency currents to treat diseases of the skin and mucous membranes. He also showed that the human body also contains alternating currents.
Giovanni Domenico Cassini (8 Jun 1625 - 14 Sep 1712)
He was an Italian French astronomer who stated that Saturn’s ring was actually composed of small particles. He discovered the dark gap that divides Saturn’s rings into two parts known as Cassini’s division. He also discovered four moons of Saturn and compiled new tables on the annual motion of the Sun. His son was also an astronomer. He determined the period of rotation of Mars and observed shadows of four Galilean satellites on Jupiter.
June 8 in Physics History - Deaths – Physicists died on June 8
Augusto Righi (27 Aug 1850 - 8 Jun 1920)
He was an Italian physicist who showed the properties of radio waves to be similar to that of light such as reflection, refraction, polarization, and interference. The difference between light and radio waves was that the radio waves had greater wavelength and were a part of the same electromagnetic spectrum as light. He was the first to generate microwaves and to discover magnetic hysteresis in 1880. His work opened a whole new area of the electromagnetic spectrum to research. He also worked on X-rays and wrote his first paper on wireless telegraphy in 1903.
June 8 in Physics History - Events – Physics Events of June 8
Discovery of Neptunium
The discovery of element 93 in the periodic table Neptunium was announced by Edwin M. McMillan and Philip H. in 1940. Macmillan discovered neptunium while studying nuclear fission. They both were able to prove that its chemical and nuclear properties were unique. For this discovery, they shared the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1951.
World Ocean Day
World ocean day was celebrated in 2009 for the first time and recognized by United Nations. It is described as the ocean project and now it is an annual day to recognize the ocean. At the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, Canada proposed the concept of a world ocean day. World ocean day creates awareness of the importance of water bodies in our lives.
Nova Aquila Discovered
The brightest Nova, Nova Aquila, since Kepler’s nova was discovered in the constellations of Aquila The eagle in 1919. It was the brightest star in the sky for the months that it shown. It was half a million times brighter than the sun but was 1200 light-years away from Earth. After 7 years, the Nova Aquila slowly faded to a blue star and became smaller and denser than our Sun.